25 December 2017 By Zawn Villines, Reviewed by Alan Carter, PharmD
Any drug that alters a person's consciousness in a way that makes self-defense or sound decision-making difficult can be a date rape drug.
Most estimates suggest that at least 25 percent or 1 in 4 of American women have been sexually assaulted or raped. Someone the victim knows, sometimes with the assistance of a date rape drug, commits most rapes.
Knowing the most common date rape drugs, their side effects, and the signs of a perpetrator planning to use one can prevent victimization.
Fast facts on date rape drugs:
Types and their side effects
Alcohol and benzodiazepines are commonly used date rape drugs, as they may cause physical weakness and loss of consciousness.
Date rape drugs make a sexual assault, including rape easier in one or more ways, such as:
Any drug that changes a potential victim's state of mind, including some prescription drugs, street drugs such as heroin, and popular drugs such as marijuana, can be a date rape drug.
The most common date rape drugs are:
Any drug that changes a victim's consciousness can be used to facilitate date rape.
In some cases, the victim might even ingest the drug willingly. A person who uses heroin, for example, may be so intoxicated that they do not realize a perpetrator is attempting to rape them. People who use drugs should, therefore, avoid taking them around certain acquaintances or in settings that might facilitate date rape.
The lethal potency of fentanyl is generally believed to be 10 times that of heroin, and the lethal potency of carfentanil is believed to be 100 times that of fentanyl. Therefore, both substances pose potential threats to first responder
By Bronwyn Herbert, 14 Oct 2015
More than 300 ice addicts a year are turning to controversial naltrexone implants at a Perth clinic in a bid to fight their drug addiction.
Professor Gary Hulse is an addiction specialist at the University of WA and believes naltrexone research should be fast tracked.
Similar to other fentanils, the most serious acute health risk from using carfentanil is likely to be rapid and severe respiratory depression, which in overdose could lead to apnoea, respiratory arrest, and death (Dahan et al., 2010; EMCDDA, 2017; Lindsay et al., 2016; Pattinson, 2008; Wax et al., 2003; White and Irvine, 1999). Factors that may exacerbate this risk include: the difficulty in diluting the substance, which can lead to a toxic dose being inadvertently used; the use of routes of administration that have high bioavailability (such as injecting, insufflation, and inhalation); a lack of experience with its effects and dosing; the use of other central nervous system depressants at the same time (such as other opioids, benzodiazepines, gabapentanoids, and alcohol); no or limited tolerance to opioids; and, using the substance alone (such as at home) which would make it more difficult for users to call for help in the case of poisoning. In addition, as discussed below, as carfentanil is being sold as or in heroin and other illicit opioids, many users will not be aware that they are using carfentanil.
medical cannabis refers to the use of cannabis or cannabinoids as medical therapy to treat disease or alleviate symptoms. In the United States, 23 states and Washington DC (May 2015) have introduced laws to permit the medical use of cannabis. Within the European Union, medicinal cannabis laws and praxis vary wildly between Countries.
to provide evidence for benefits and harms of cannabis (including extracts and tinctures) treatment for adults in the following indications: control of spasticity and pain in patients with multiple sclerosis; control of pain in patients with chronic neuropathic pain; control of nausea and vomiting in adults with cancer receiving chemotherapy.
we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and EMBASE from inception to September 2016. We also searched for on-going studies via ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal. All searches included also non-English language literature. All relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the safety and efficacy of cannabis (including extracts and tinctures) compared with placebo or other pharmacological agents were included. Three authors independently evaluated the titles and abstracts of studies identified in the literature searches for their eligibility. For studies considered eligible, we retrieved full texts. Three investigators independently extracted data. For the assessment of the quality of evidence, we used the standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane and GRADE working Group.
41 trials (4,550 participants) were included; 15 studies considered efficacy and safety of cannabis for patients with multiple sclerosis, 12 for patients with chronic pain, and 14 for patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. The included studies were published between 1975 and 2015, and the majority of them were conducted in Europe. We judged almost 50% of these studies to be at low risk of bias. The large majority (80%) of the comparisons were with placebo; only 8 studies included patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy comparing cannabis with other antiemetic drugs. Concerning the efficacy of cannabis (compared with placebo) in patients with multiple sclerosis, confidence in the estimate was high in favour of cannabis for spasticity (numerical rating scale and visual analogue scale, but not the Ashworth scale) and pain. For chronic and neuropathic pain (compared with placebo), there was evidence of a small effect; however, confidence in the estimate is low and these results could not be considered conclusive. There is uncertainty whether cannabis, including extracts and tinctures, compared with placebo or other antiemetic drugs reduces nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer requiring chemotherapy, although the confidence in the estimate of the effect was low or very low. In the included studies, many adverse events were reported and none of the studies assessed the development of abuse or dependence.
There is incomplete evidence of the efficacy and safety of medical use of cannabis in the clinical contexts considered in this review. Furthermore, for many of the outcomes considered, the confidence in the estimate of the effect was again low or very low.
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