Cannabis

A New Study on Medical Marijuana by Researchers from the University of California–Davis Reveals That Mold, Bacterial and other Toxic Contaminants Were Discovered in Samples from 20 out of 20 Licensed Dispensaries in Northern California.

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have discovered that medical marijuana from 20 dispensaries contain multiple fungal and bacterial contaminants that are highly toxic and can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections among cannabis users. The researchers have warned users that smoking, vaping or inhaling aerosolized marijuana is a real health risk, especially for those with chronic conditions such as lymphoma, AIDS or other conditions requiring immunosuppressing therapies. The findings will be published in the journal Clinical Microbiology and Infection, titled, “A microbiome assessment of medical marijuana.”

Medical Marijuana for Symptom Control and Its Issues

Legalization without proper scientific scrutiny has led to increasing acceptance in many states. A recent Gallup study showed that a majority of Americans now believe that marijuana is generally safe. Of course, when it is obtained legally and supposedly monitored by state health departments for safety, users assume marijuana dispensaries have met certain regulatory standards to protect consumer safety. But this is not true because the purity, quality and safety is not federally regulated.

Moreover, the idea that vaping is safe drug delivery method is a chimera. Inhaling marijuana in any form provides a pathway deep into the lungs where infections are most dangerous and can spread quickly through the blood. The pathogens found in study samples are all dangerous and could lead to serious illness and death.

Why Does This Matter?

The public has been told that marijuana that is legally attained from a licensed dispensary consists of pure, natural, cannabis which can be safely inhaled as a mist to deliver its supposed medicinal benefits. Moreover, the public believes that temperatures reached by smoking marijuana are high enough to kill any fungi or bacteria. This, of course, is untrue and not substantiated by any research. Medical, and now recreational, use of marijuana has been foisted on the public via the ballot box without any scientific due diligence regarding its safety or efficacy.  We are now beginning to pay the piper for this ignorant miscalculation.

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Objectives: Previous studies have found a negative population-level correlation between medical marijuana availability in US states, and trends in medical and nonmedical prescription drug use. These studies have been interpreted as evidence that use of medical marijuana reduces medical and nonmedical prescription drug use. This study evaluates whether medical marijuana use is a risk or protective factor for medical and nonmedical prescription drug use.

Conclusions: Our findings disconfirm the hypothesis that a population-level negative correlation between medical marijuana use and prescription drug harms occurs because medical marijuana users are less likely to use prescription drugs, either medically or nonmedically. Medical marijuana users should be a target population in efforts to combat nonmedical prescription drug use.

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Conclusion: USA – Illinois: Even under this conservative scenario, and omitting important cost centers such as long-term health costs, marijuana legalization will cost Illinois approximately $670.5 million in 2020, significantly more than the $566 million in revenues that pro-legalization activists project.

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Abstract

Background: Depression is one of the most consistent risk factors implicated in both the course of escalating substance use behaviors and in the development of substance dependence symptoms, including those associated with marijuana use. In the present study, we evaluate if depression is associated with marijuana use disorder symptoms across the continuum of marijuana use frequency.

Methods: Data were drawn from six annual surveys of the National Survey of Drug Use and Health to include adults who reported using marijuana at least once in the past 30 days (N =28,557).

Results: After statistical control for sociodemographic characteristics and substance use behaviors including marijuana use, alcohol use, smoking, and use of illicit substances other than marijuana, depression was positively and significantly associated with each of the marijuana use disorder symptoms as well as the symptom total score. Adult marijuana users with depression were consistently more likely to experience marijuana use disorder symptoms and a larger number of symptoms, with the magnitude and direction of the relationship generally consistent across all levels of marijuana use frequency from 1 day used in the past month to daily marijuana use.

Conclusions: Depression is a consistent risk factor for marijuana use disorder symptoms over and above exposure to marijuana suggesting that depressed individuals may represent an important subgroup in need of targeted substance use intervention.

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Patrick D. Skosnik, Jose A. Cortes-Briones, and Mihály Hajós

ABSTRACT

Evidence has accumulated over the past several decades suggesting that both exocannabinoids and endocannabinoids play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The current article presents evidence suggesting that one of the mechanisms whereby cannabinoids induce psychosis is through the alteration in synchronized neural oscillations. Neural oscillations, particularly in the gamma (30–80 Hz) and theta (4–7 Hz) ranges, are disrupted in schizophrenia and are involved in various areas of perceptual and cognitive function. Regarding cannabinoids, preclinical evidence from slice and local field potential recordings has shown that central cannabinoid receptor (cannabinoid receptor type 1) agonists decrease the power of neural oscillations, particularly in the gamma and theta bands. Further, the administration of cannabinoids during critical stages of neural development has been shown to disrupt the brain’s ability to generate synchronized neural oscillations in adulthood. In humans, studies examining the effects of chronic cannabis use (utilizing electroencephalography) have shown abnormalities in neural oscillations in a pattern similar to those observed in schizophrenia. Finally, recent studies in humans have also shown disruptions in neural oscillations after the acute administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive constituent in cannabis. Taken together, these data suggest that both acute and chronic cannabinoids can disrupt the ability of the brain to generate synchronized oscillations at functionally relevant frequencies. Hence, this may represent one of the primary mechanisms whereby cannabinoids induce disruptions in attention, working memory, sensory-motor integration, and many other psychosis-related behavioral effects.

Keywords: Cannabinoids, Cannabis, Gamma, Neural oscillations, Psychosis, Theta

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